What is the Ethereum Virtual Machine? – EVM Explained

Blockchain has progressed from a seemingly obscure technology to actually reaching into the mainstream. It’s all over the media and the internet, and it’s clear that it’s not only for the financial or technological industries. There are several businesses that might benefit from blockchain technology’s worldwide impact. Learn more about Smart Contracts and the Ethereum Virtual Machine by reading further down below.

What Is The Ethereum Virtual Machine?

EVM, which stands for Ethereum Virtual Machine, is a buzzword you may have encountered while creating smart contracts on the Ethereum blockchain. In essence, virtual machines serve as a layer of abstraction between both the code being executed and the system on which it is being executed. Software mobility is enhanced as applications are kept distinct from one another and from their hosts by this layer of abstraction.

The EVM is a tool used to predict the general state of Ethereum for each block on the blockchain as it is added to the chain. As with other blockchain-based networks, Ethereum employs a distributed ledger to keep a record of transactions while imposing rules for how users may interact on the network. It also has its own native currency (ETH). 

In contrast, Ethereum’s smart contract capabilities provide an extra layer of functionality. This second layer is also known as the “distributed state machine.” Ethereum’s state may be defined as a massive database including all of the ETH accounts and their associated balances. With each block, Ethereum’s state may be updated in line with the set of established rules that can run any machine code. This is a unique feature of Ethereum. When a new block is added, the Ethereum Virtual Machine (EVM) specifies how the machine will shift state.

But how exactly does Ethereum function? Essentially, it performs tasks by executing particular instructions. These are referred to as opcodes. Every opcode is one byte in size and is converted to bytecode before being used. When you do a given job, it is broken down into its constituent bytes.

The Ethereum virtual computer is Turing-complete as a result of a set of 140 opcodes. In other words, it should be capable of solving almost any computing issue. EVM is isolated because the code executing on it has no access to any other processes running on your computer, allowing it to operate in complete isolation. To fully understand this, you must first learn how Smart Contracts work.

Introduction To Smart Contracts

The Ethereum blockchain is used to execute smart contracts, which are programs that communicate with one another. The contract consists of a set of code and data stored on Ethereum at a specific address.

This form of account is called a smart contract, and it exists on the Ethereum network. Like every account, they are able to make transactions across the network without any issues. In other words, instead of being controlled by a user, smart contracts are sent out into the network and run per the commands that originally were given when they were written.

Sending transactions that execute the contract’s specified tasks is necessary. Smart contracts share some basic characteristics: they impose predetermined rules through their specified code; they are irreversible, and transactions cannot be reversed or changed. Also, user accounts are able to interact with the smart contract. 

Creating A Smart Contract

Solidity, a computer language related to JavaScript and C++, is often used to create smart contracts. Although other languages are also used for writing smart contracts, such as Bamboo and Vyper.

An example of a Solidity contract code. 

An example of a Solidity contract code.  Source: Ethereum

The EVM cannot directly run smart contract program languages like Solidity. Instead, they are reduced to machine instructions at the lowest possible level, known as opcodes.

The EVM uses a series of instructions referred to as opcodes to carry out certain functions. There are 140 different opcodes in use at the time of this writing. The EVM’s Turing completeness is made possible by these opcodes. This implies that the EVM is capable of doing almost anything if it has the resources to do so. The maximum number of opcodes is 256 since opcodes are only one byte in length. Opcodes range from Stack-manipulating opcodes (POP, PUSH, DUP, SWAP) to Halting opcodes (STOP, RETURN, REVERT, INVALID, SELFDESTRUCT) and many more that help them operate.

Transactions And Gas

The data delivered from one account to another might be in the form of binary data or Ether. Payload is another name for binary data and everything that contains code that is executed. In this case, the payload is used as input data. The code you give will be run and used to create a new contract if it is not set. During creation, the contract’s code is null. Contracts run on all Ethereum nodes since there is no central authority. That might put the network in danger of being deliberately slowed down. Creating a slew of complicated contracts is all they’d need to do.

Each opcode has a basic gas cost as a defense against these kinds of assaults. Tokens are used to pay gas which is then used to pay the EVM for processing the transaction. Its goal is to reduce the amount of effort required for a certain task. The gas used by the Ethereum virtual machine is gradually reduced while the transaction is carried out.

The protocol ensures that fees are paid before executing the program, thereby safeguarding incentives and the priority structure by providing a mechanism to estimate gas fees to execute a smart contract. Ethereum includes validators that check that all of the data on every network transaction is accurate, that the money held by the sender is capable of covering the execution of the smart contract, and that the EVM did not encounter any errors while performing the function.

Memory And Logs

The Ethereum virtual machine specification specifies three distinct storage locations: Storage, Memory, and the Stack. To keep track of contract status variables, separate storage regions are set up within each individual account.

  • Storage is allocated throughout the process of generating a contract. You can only alter it using a sendTransaction call.
  • Memory holds temporary variables. Due to limited memory, memory is deleted across calls. The memory may be accessed by a byte. Readings are limited to 256 bits, whereas writes might be 8 to 256 bits wide. Memory expansion requires gas and its costs only increase as it expands. Using it is way cheaper than actually storing it.
  • A stack machine is defined in the Ethereum virtual machine specifications. Computing happens on the stack. This data section can accommodate up to 1024 tiny variables. Each stack item is 256 bits long. Of all three types of data storage, storing data in a stack offers the best value.

Benefits of the Ethereum Virtual Machine

Anyone may construct a DApp using the EVM, which is open source. There are many possible applications for this kind of software, and the technology is not confined to a certain set of people or to some rich individuals with lots of connections.

There are numerous potential advantages to using smart contracts. Non-fungible tokens (NFTs), for instance, are a notable example. Anyone can make digital art or anything virtual and sell it on an NFT marketplace by registering for an NFT account. Previously unattainable accessibility to the art world is now made feasible via the use of virtual technology.

Drawbacks of the Ethereum Virtual Machine

The EVM system is not completely decentralized. Virtual machines like Amazon Web Services host the overwhelming majority of Ethereum nodes. Even if they don’t like it, the operators of these services might simply shut down their nodes, causing damage or ruining the network. With some social media applications, this has occurred previously.

EVM takes some technical expertise to use. The EVM is mostly inaccessible to those who aren’t familiar with coding. Although, there are plans to develop a more user-friendly interface in the future. When it comes to creating NFTs, a suitable example is in the form of programs with a graphical user interface (GUI) that make it possible for anybody to do so.

When the network is congested, the cost of gas goes up. For Ethereum users, this may be a serious drawback. While big transactions may not be impacted as much, everyone attempting to submit minor transactions may be unable to utilize the network for a short period of time due to the issue. Decentralized apps, in particular, are affected. Things may slow down and stop completely when gas prices grow too costly, and a large number of users engage with DApps’ smart contracts and create numerous transactions.


  • Blockchain has gone from being an obscure technology to one that is now widely accepted in the modern world.
  • Ethereum’s virtual machine (EVM) is used to predict the status of the Ethereum network when each block is added to the blockchain.
  • For smart contracts, Solidity, a JavaScript and C++-like programming language, is often utilized.
  • Languages like Solidity cannot be directly executed on the EVM; instead, they are converted to opcodes, the lowest level of machine instructions.
  • For each transaction, tokens are used to pay “gas,” which is then used to pay the EVM for the time it takes to perform the transaction.
  • The EVM system is not totally decentralized, and Amazon virtual machines host the bulk of Ethereum nodes.